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A Practical Guide to Clinical Medicine
A comprehensive physical examination and clinical education site for medical students
and other health care professionals
Content and Photographs by Charlie Goldberg, M.D., UCSD School of Medicine and VA Medical Center, San Diego, California 92093-0611.
Send Comments to: Charlie Goldberg, M.D.
The Neurological Examination
The goals of the neurological examination are several:
patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of a neurological problem,
the examination should:
on the basis of an organized and thorough examination, whether in fact
neurological dysfunction exists.
which component(s) of the neurological system are affected (e.g. motor,
sensory, cranial nerves, or possibly several systems simultaneously).
possible, determine the precise location of the problem (e.g. peripheral
v central nervous system; region and side of the brain affected etc.).
the basis of these findings, generate a list of possible etiologies. Unlikely
diagnoses can be excluded and appropriate testing (e.g. brain and spinal
cord imaging) then applied in an orderly and logical fashion.
for the presence of discrete abnormalities in patients at risk for the development
of neurological disorders. This is
appropriate for individuals who have no particular subjective symptoms suggestive
of a neurological problem, yet have systemic illnesses that might put them
at risk for subtle dysfunction. Diabetic patients, for example (particularly
those with long standing poor control), may develop
peripheral nerve dysfunction. This
may only be detected through careful sensory testing (see below under Sensory
Testing), which would have important clinical implications.
screening/documentation of baseline function for those who are otherwise healthy.
In patients with neither signs nor risk factors for neurological disease,
it's unlikely that the detailed exam would uncover occult problems. Simply observing the patient during the
course of the usual H&P (i.e. watching them walk, get up and down from
the exam table, etc.) may well suffice. Many
examiners incorporate some aspects of the neuro
exam into their standard evaluations. Cranial
Nerve testing, for example, can be easily blended into the Head and Neck evaluation.
Deciding what other aspects to routinely include is based on judgment
The major areas of the exam, covering the most testable
components of the neurological system, include:
- Mental status testing (covered in a separate section of this web site)
- Cranial Nerves
- Muscle strength, tone and bulk
- Sensory Function
Real and imagined problems with the neurological examination:
The neurological examination is one of the least popular and (perhaps) most
poorly performed aspects of the complete physical. I suspect that this situation
exists for several reasons:
exam is perceived as being time and labor intensive.
and house staff never develop an adequate level of confidence in their ability
to perform the exam, nor in the accuracy of their
findings. This, in turn, probably translates
into poor performance later in their careers.
findings are often quite subjective.Thus,
particularly when the examiner does not have confidence in their abilities
(see above), interpretation of the results can be problematic.
of some neurological findings requires an in depth understanding of neuroanatomy and pathophysiology.
As many clinicians do not see a large
number of patients with neurological disorders, they likely maintain a limited
working understanding of this information.
is an over reliance on the utility of neuro-imaging
(e.g. CT, MRI). These studies provide
an evaluation of anatomy but not function. Thus, while extremely helpful, they must
be interpreted within the context of exam findings. Careful examination may make imaging unnecessary.
Also, exam findings can make a strong case for the presence of a pathologic
process, even if it is not seen on a particular radiological study (i.e. there
are limits to what can be seen on even the most high tech imaging).
The above are not meant to lower expectations with regards to how well a physician
should be expected to learn and perform the neurological examination. Rather,
I mention these points to highlight some of the real and imagined obstacles
to clinical performance. Like all other aspects of the physical exam, there
is a wealth of information that can be obtained from the neurological examination,
provided that it is done carefully and accurately.This is, of course, predicated
on learning how to do it correctly. A few practical considerations/suggestions:
general, the neurological examination is not applied in its entirety to asymptomatic,
otherwise healthy people as the yield (i.e. likelihood of identifying occult
disease) would be quite low. It is, however, a good idea to practice
the exam early in your careers, even when working with normal patients.This will improve the facility with which
you perform the exam, provide you with a better sense of the range of normal,
increase the accuracy of the results generated, and give you confidence in
the meaning of findings identified when evaluating other patients.
- It is sometimes appropriate to perform only certain parts of the neurological
examination (e.g. just cranial nerves; or only motor testing)These situations
will become apparent with experience.
testing described below is still rather basic. There are many additional aspects of the
exam that should be applied in specific settings. They are beyond the scope of this text,
but can be found in other references.
advantage of those opportunities when a more experienced clinician examines
one of your patients. When possible,
watch them perform their exam. Then
go back alone and verify the findings.
Like any other aspect of the exam, the neurological assessment
has limits. Testing of one system is
often predicated on the normal function of other organ systems. If, for example, a patient is visually impaired,
they may not be able to perform finger to nose testing, a part of the assessment
of cerebellar function (see below). Or, a patient's severe degenerative hip disease
will prevent them from walking, making that aspect of the exam impossible to
assess. The interpretation of "findings"
must therefore take these things into account. Only in this way can you generate an accurate
picture. Doing this, of course, takes
practice and experience.
Cranial Nerve (CN) Testing
Many practitioners incorporate cranial nerve testing with their complete examination
of the head and neck (see the Head and Neck section of this web site for details).
A detailed description of the CN assessment is provided below. As each half of the body has its own cranial
nerve, both right and left sides must be checked independently.
Cranial Nerve 1 (Olfactory): Formal assessment of
ability to smell is generally omitted, unless there is a specific
complaint. If it is to be tested:
- 1. Check to make sure that the patient is able to inhale and exhale through the open nostril.
- Have the patient close their eyes.
- Present a small test tube filled with something that has a distinct, common odor (e.g. ground coffee) to the open nostrils. The patient should be able to correctly identify the odor at approximately 10 cm.
For more information about CN1, see the following links:
Yale University Cranial Nerve Review Site
Uniform Services School of Medicine Cranial Nerve Review Site
Cranial Nerve 2 (Optic): This nerve carries visual
impulses from the eye to the optical cortex of the brain by means of the optic
tracts. Testing involves 3 phases (also
covered in the section of this site dedicated to the Eye Exam):
eye is tested separately. If the
patient uses glasses to view distant objects, they should be permitted to
wear them (referred to as best corrected vision).
- A Snellen Chart is the standard, wall mounted device used for this assessment.
Patients are asked to read the letters or numbers on successively lower
lines (each with smaller images) until you identify the last line which
can be read with 100% accuracy. Each line has a fraction written next to
it. 20/20 indicates normal vision. 20/400 means that the patient's vision
20 feet from an object is equivalent to that of a normal person viewing
the same object from 400 feet. In other words, the larger the denominator,
the worse the vision.
Snellen chart for measuring visual acuity
- There are hand held cards that look like Snellen Charts
but are positioned 14 inches from the patient. These are used simply for convenience.
Testing and interpretation are as described for the Snellen.
Hand held visual acuity card
- If neither chart is available and the patient
has visual complaints, some attempt should be made to objectively measure
visual acuity. This is a critically
important reference point, particularly when trying to communicate the magnitude
of a visual disturbance to a consulting physician. Can the patient read news print?
The headline of a newspaper? Distinguish
fingers or hand movement in front of their face?
Detect light?Failure at each
level correlates with a more severe problem.
- Visual Field Testing: Specific areas of the retina receive input from precise
areas of the visual field. This information is carried to the brain along
well defined anatomic pathways. Holes in vision (referred to as visual field
cuts) are caused by a disruption along any point in the path from the eyeball
to the visual cortex of the brain. Visual fields can be crudely assessed as
examiner should be nose to nose with the patient, separated by approximately
8 to 12 inches.
eye is checked separately. The examiner
closes one eye and the patient closes the one opposite. The open eyes should
then be staring directly at one another.
examiner should move their hand out towards the periphery of his/her visual
field on the side where the eyes are open. The finger should be equidistant from both persons.
examiner should then move the wiggling finger in towards them, along an
imaginary line drawn between the two persons.The patient and examiner should detect
the finger at more or less the same time.
finger is then moved out to the diagonal corners of the field and moved
inwards from each of these directions. Testing
is then done starting at a point in front of the closed eyes. The wiggling finger is moved towards the open eyes.
other eye is then tested.
Meaningful interpretation is predicated upon the examiner having normal fields,
as they are using themselves for comparison.
If the examiner cannot seem to move their finger to a point that
is outside the patient's field don't worry, as it simply means that their
fields are normal.
Interpretation: This test is rather crude, and it is quite possible
to have small visual field defects that would not be apparent on this type
of testing. Prior to interpreting abnormal
findings, the examiner must understand the normal pathways by which visual
impulses travel from the eye to the brain.
For more information about visual field testing, see the following links:
Washington University, review of visual field
of testing and pathology
University of Arkansas,
gross anatomy of visual pathway
The pupil has afferent (sensory) nerves that travel with CN2. These nerves carry the impulse generated
by the light back towards the brain. They
function in concert with efferent (motor) nerves that travel with CN 3 and
cause pupillary constriction. Seen under CN 3 for specifics of testing.
For more information about CN 2, see the following links:
Yale University Cranial Nerve Review Site
Uniform Services School of Medicine Cranial Nerve Review Site
Cranial nerves 3, 4 and 6 & extra ocular movements:
Normally, the eyes move in concert (ie when left eye moves left, right eye moves in same direction to a similar degree). The brain takes the input from each eye and puts it together to form a single image. This coordinated movement depends on 6 extra ocular muscles that insert around the eye balls and allow them to move in all directions. Each muscle is innervated by one of 3 Cranial Nerves (CNs): CNs 3, 4 and 6. Movements are described as: elevation (pupil directed upwards), depression (pupil directed downwards), adbduction (pupil directed laterally), adduction (pupil directed medially), extorsion (top of eye rotating away from the nose), and intorsion (top of eye rotating towards the nose).
The 3 CNs responsible for eye movement and the muscles that they control are as follows:
CN 4 (Trochlear): Controls the Superior Oblique muscle.
CN 6 (Abducens): Controls the Lateral Rectus muscle.
CN 3 (Oculomotor): Controls the remaining 4 muscles (inferior oblique, inferior rectus, superior rectus, and medial rectus). CN3 also raises the eyelid and mediates constriction of the pupil (discussed below).
The mnemonic "S O 4, L R 6, All The Rest 3" may help remind you which CN does what (Superior Oblique CN 4, Lateral Rectus CN 6, All The Rest of the muscles innervated by CN 3).
EOMs and their function:
The medial and lateral rectus muscles are described first, as their functions are very straight forward:
Lateral rectus: Abduction (ie lateral movement along the horizontal plane)
Medial rectus: Adduction (ie. Medial movement along the horizontal plane)
The remaining muscles each causes movement in more than one direction (e.g. some combination of elevation/depression, abduction/adduction, intorsion/extorsion). This is due to the fact that they insert on the eyeball at various angles, and in the case of the superior oblique, thru a pulley. Review of the origin and insertion of each muscle sheds light on its actions (see links @ the end of this section). The net impact of any one EOM is the result of the position of the eye and the sum of forces from all other contributing muscles.
Specific actions of the remaining EOMs are described below. The action which the muscle primarily performs is listed first, followed by secondary and then tertiary actions.
Inferior rectus: depression, extorsion and adduction.
Superior rectus: elevation, intorsion and adduction
Superior oblique: intorsion, depression and abduction
Inferior oblique: extorsion, elevation and abduction
Practically speaking, cranial nerve testing is done such that the examiner can observe eye movements in all directions. The movements should be smooth and coordinated. To assess, proceed as follows:
- Stand in front of the patient.
- Ask them to follow your finger with their eyes while keeping their head in one position
- Using your finger, trace an imaginary "H" or rectangular shape in front of them, making sure that your finger moves far enough out and up so that you're able to see all appropriate eye movements (ie lateral and up, lateral down, medial down, medial up).
- At the end, bring your finger directly in towards the patient's nose. This will cause the patient to look cross-eyed and the pupils should constrict, a response referred to as accommodation.
Testing Extraocular Movements
Pathology: Isolated lesions of a cranial nerve or the muscle itself can adversely affect extraocular movement. Patients will report diplopia (double vision) when they look in a direction that's affected. This is because the brain can't put together the discordant images in a way that forms a single picture. In response, they will either assume a head tilt that attempts to correct for the abnormal eye positioning or close the abnormal eye. As an example, the patient shown below has a left cranial nerve 6 lesion, which means that his left lateral rectus no longer functions. When he looks right, his vision is normal. However, when he looks left, he experiences double vision as the left eye can't move laterally. This is referred to as horizontal diplopia.
Left CN 6 Palsy
Patient was asked to look left. Note that left eye will not abduct.
It's worth mentioning that disorders of the extra ocular muscles themselves (and not the CN which innervate them) can also lead to impaired eye movement. For example, pictured below is a patient who has suffered a traumatic left orbital injury. The inferior rectus muscle has become entrapped within the resulting fracture, preventing the left eye from being able to look downward. The scleral blood and peri-orbital echymosis are secondary to the trauma as well.
*For more on EOMs go to: Eyes -EOMs http://meded.ucsd.edu/clinicalmed/eyes.htm#Extra
As mentioned above, CN 3 also innervates the muscle which raises the upper eye lid (Levator Palpebrae Superioris muscle). This can be assessed by simply looking at the patient. If there is CN 3 dysfunction, the eyelid on that side will cover more of the iris compared with the other eye. This is referred to as ptosis.
Right eye ptosis from CN 3 Palsy. In addition, the right eye is directed laterally, which is due to unopposed effects of CNs 4 & 6. The dilated right pupil is explained below.
The response of pupils to light is controlled by afferent (sensory)
nerves that travel with CN 2 and efferent (motor) nerves that travel with CN 3.
These innervate the ciliary muscle, which controls
the size of the pupil. Testing is
performed as follows:
helps if the room is a bit dim, as this will cause the pupil to become
any light source (flashlight, oto-ophtahlmoscope,
etc), shine the light into one eye. This will cause that pupil to constrict, referred to as the direct
the light and then re-expose it to the same eye, though this time observe the other
pupil. It should also constrict, referred to
as the consensual response. This
occurs because afferent impulses from one eye generate an efferent
response (i.e. signal to constrict) that is sent to both pupils.
the patient's pupils are small at baseline or you are otherwise having difficulty seeing the changes, take your free hand and
place it above the eyes so as to provide some shade. This should cause the pupils to dilate
additionally, making the change when they are exposed to light more
dramatic. If you are still unable
to appreciate a response, ask the patient to close their eye, generating
maximum darkness and thus dilatation. Then ask the patient to open the eye and immediately expose it to
the light. This will (hopefully)
make the change from dilated to constricted very apparent.
- Under normal conditions, both pupils will appear symmetric. Direct and consensual
response should be equal for both.
- Asymmetry of the pupils is referred to as aniosocoria. Some people with
anisocoria have no underlying neuropathology. In this setting, the asymmetry
will have been present for a long time without change and the patient will
have no other neurological signs or symptoms. The direct and consensual responses
should be preserved.
- A number of conditions can also affect the size of the pupils. Medications/intoxications
which cause generalized sympathetic activation will result in dilatation of
both pupils. Other drugs(e.g. narcotics) cause symmetric constrictionof the
pupils. These findings can provide important clues when dealing with an agitated
or comatose patient suffering from medication overdose. Eye drops known as
mydriatic agents are used to paralyze the muscles, resulting marked dilatation
of the pupils. They are used during a detailed eye examination, allowing a
clear view of the retina. Addiitonally, any process which causes increased
intracranial pressure can result in a dilated pupil that does not respond
- If the afferent nerve is not working, neither pupil will respond when light
is shined in the affected eye. Light shined in the normal eye, however, will
cause the affected pupil to constrict. That's because the efferent (signal
to constrict) response in this case is generated by the afferent impulse received
by the normally functioning eye. This is referred to as an afferent pupil
- If the efferent nerve is not working, the pupil will appear dilated at baseline
and will have neither direct nor consensual pupillary responses.
Right CN 3 Palsy - Note that the right pupil is dilated relative to the left, due to loss of efferent input. The ptosis and abnormal eye positioning are discussed above.
For more information about pupillary response and CN 3, see the following
More on Extraocular movements: http://www.tedmontgomery.com/the_eye/eom.html#top
Dartmouth Neurosciences - Extraocular movements http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dons/part_1/chapter_4.html
Yale University - Extraocular Muscles http://info.med.yale.edu/caim/cnerves/cn3/cn3_3.html
Yale University Cranial Nerve
UC Davis Extra-Occular Movement and Pupilary Response Simulator
CN 4 (Trochlear): Seen under CN 3.
CN 5 (Trigeminal): This nerve has both motor and sensory components.
Assessment of CN 5 Sensory Function: The sensory limb has 3
major branches, each covering roughly 1/3 of the face. They are: the Ophthlamic,
Maxillary, and Mandibular. Assessment is performed as follows:
Use a sharp implement (e.g. broken wooden handle of a cotton tipped applicator).
- Ask the patient to close their eyes so that they receive no visual cues.
Touch the sharp tip of the stick to the right and left side of the forehead,
assessing the Ophthalmic branch.
- Touch the tip to the right and left side of the cheek area, assessing the Maxillary
- Touch the tip to the right and left side of the jaw area, assessing the Mandibular
The patient should be able to clearly identify when the sharp end touches their
face. Of course, make sure that you do not push too hard as the face is normally
quite sensitive. The Ophthalmic branch of CN 5 also receives sensory input from
the surface of the eye. To assess this component:
Assessment of CN 5 Motor Function: The motor limb of CN 5 innervates the
Temporalis and Masseter muscles, both important for closing the jaw. Assessment
is performed as follows:
- Pull out a wisp of cotton.
- While the patient is looking straight ahead, gently brush the wisp against the
lateral aspect of the sclera (outer white area of the eye ball).
- This should cause the patient to blink. Blinking also requires that CN 7
function normally, as it controls eye lid closure.
- Place your hand on both Temporalis muscles, located on the lateral aspects
of the forehead.
- Ask the patient to tightly close their jaw, causing the muscles beneath
your fingers to become taught.
- Then place your hands on both Masseter muscles, located just in from of
the Tempero-Mandibular joints (point where lower jaw articulates with skull).
- Ask the patient to tightly close their jaw, which should again cause the
muscles beneath your fingers to become taught. Then ask them to move their
jaw from side to side, another function of the Massester.
For more information about CN 5 motor function, see the following links:
Yale University Cranial Nerve Review Site
Uniform Services School of Medicine Cranial Nerve Review Site
CN6 (Abducens): See under CN 3.
CN7 (Facial): This nerve innervates
many of the muscles of facial expression. Assessment is performed as follows:
- First look at the patient's face. It should appear symmetric. That is:
If there is any question as to whether an apparent asymmetry if new or old, ask
the patient for a picture (often found on a driver's license) for comparison.
- There should be the same amount of wrinkles apparent on either side
of the forehead... barring asymmetric Bo-Tox injection!
- The nasolabial folds (lines coming down from either side of the nose
towards the corners of the mouth) should be equal
- The corners of the mouth should be at the same height
- Ask the patient to wrinkle their eyebrows and then close their eyes tightly. CN
7 controls the muscles that close the eye lids (as opposed to CN 3, which
controls the muscles which open the lid). You should not be able to open the patient's
eyelids with the application of gentle upwards pressure.
- Ask the patient to smile. The corners of the mouth should rise to the same height
and equal amounts of teeth should be visible on either side.
- Ask the patient to puff out their cheeks. Both sides should puff equally and air
should not leak from the mouth.
Interpretation: CN 7 has a precise pattern of inervation, which has important
clinical implications. The right and left upper motor neurons (UMNs) each innervate
both the right and left lower motor neurons (LMNs) that allow the forehead to
move up and down. However, the LMNs that control the muscles of the lower face
are only innervated by the UMN from the opposite side of the face.
CN7 - Facial Nerve
Precise Pattern of Innervation
Thus, in the setting of CN 7 dysfunction, the pattern of weakness or paralysis
observed will differ depending on whether the UMN or LMN is affected. Specifically:
- UMN dysfunction: This might occur with a central nervous system event, such
as a stroke. In the setting of R UMN CN 7 dysfunction, the patient would be
able to wrinkle their forehead on both sides of their face, as the left CN
7 UMN cross innervates the R CN 7 LMN that controls this movement. However,
the patient would be unable to effectively close their left eye or raise the
left corner of their mouth.
Right central CN7 dysfunction: Note preserved abiltiy to wrinkle forehead.
Left corner of mouth, however, is slightly lower than right. Left naso-labial
fold is slightly less pronounced compared with right.
- LMN dysfunction: This occurs most commonly in the setting of Bell's Palsy,
an idiopathic, acute CN 7 peripheral nerve palsy. In the setting of R CN 7
peripheral (i.e. LMN) dysfunction, the patient would not be able to wrinkle
their forehead, close their eye or raise the corner of their mouth on the
right side. Left sided function would be normal.
Left peripheral CN7 dysfunction: Note loss of forehead wrinkle, ability
to close eye, ability to raise corner of mouth, and decreased naso-labial fold
prominence on left.
This clinical distinction is very important, as central vs peripheral dysfunction carry different prognostic and treatment
implications. Bell's Palsy (peripheral
CN 7 dysfunction)tends to happen in patient's over 50 and often responds to treatment with Acyclovir
(an anti-viral agent) and Prednisone (a corticosteroid). Over the course of weeks or months there is usually improvement and often
complete resolution of symptoms. Assessment
of acute central (UMN) CN 7 dysfunction would require quite a different approach
(e.g. neuroimaging to determine etiology).
CN 7 is also responsible for carrying taste sensations from
the anterior 2/3 of the tongue. However
as this is rarely of clinical import, further discussion is not included.
For more information about CN 7, see the following links:
Yale University Cranial Nerve Review Site
Uniform Services School of Medicine Cranial Nerve Review Site
CN8 (Acoustic): CN 8 carries sound
impulses from the cochlea to the brain. Prior to reaching the cochlea, the sound
must first traverse the external canal and middle ear. Auditory acuity can be
assessed very crudely on physical exam as follows:
- Stand behind the patient and ask them to close their eyes.
- Whisper a few words from just behind one ear. The patient should be able
to repeat these back accurately. Then perform the same test for the other
- Alternatively, place your fingers approximately 5 cm from one ear and rub
them together. The patient should be able to hear the sound generated. Repeat
for the other ear.
For more information about ear anatomy, see the following link:
Washington University Inner
These tests are rather crude. Precise quantification, generally necessary
whenever there is a subjective decline in acuity, requires special equipment
The cause of subjective hearing loss can be assessed with
bedside testing. Hearing is broken into 2 phases: conductive and sensorineural.
The conductive phase refers to the passage of sound from the outside to the level of CN 8.
This includes the transmission of sound through the external canal and
middle ear. Sensorineural refers to the transmission of sound via CN 8 to the brain.
Identification of conductive (a much more common problem in the general population)
defects is determined as follows:
- Grasp the 512 Hz tuning fork by the stem and strike it against the bony
edge of your palm, generating a continuous tone. Alternatively you can get
the fork to vibrate by "snapping" the ends between your thumb and
512 Hz Tuning Fork
- Hold the stem against the patient's skull, along an imaginary line that
is equidistant from either ear.
- The bones of the skull will carry the sound equally to both the right and
left CN 8. Both CN 8s, in turn, will transmit the impulse to the brain.
- The patient should report whether the sound was heard equally in both ears
or better on one side then the other (referred to as lateralizing to a side).
- Grasp the 512 Hz tuning fork by the stem and strike it against the bony edge of your
palm, generating a continuous tone.
- Place the stem of the tuning fork on the mastoid bone, the bony prominence located
immediately behind the lower part of the ear.
- The vibrations travel via the bones of the skull to CN 8, allowing the patient to
hear the sound.
- Ask the patient to inform you when they can no longer appreciate the sound. When this
occurs, move the tuning fork such that the tines are placed right next to (but not touching)
the opening of the ear. At this point, the patient should be able to again hear the sound.
This is because air is a better conducting medium then bone.
- The above testing is reserved for those instances when a patient complains of a deficit in
hearing. Thus, on the basis of history, there should be a complaint of hearing decline in one or both ears.
- In the setting of a conductive hearing loss (e.g. wax in the external canal), the
Webber test will lateralize (i.e. sound will be heard better)in the ear that has the
subjective decline in hearing. This is because when there is a problem with conduction,
competing sounds from the outside cannot reach CN 8 via the external canal.
Thus, sound generated by the vibrating tuning fork and traveling to CN 8 by means of bony
conduction is better heard as it has no outside "competition." You can transiently create a
conductive hearing loss by putting the tip of your index finger in the external canal of
one ear. If you do this while performing the Webber test, the sound will be heard on
- In the setting of a sensorineural hearing loss (e.g. a tumor of CN 8), the Webber test
will lateralize to the ear which does not have the subjective decline in hearing.
This is because CN 8 is the final pathway through which sound is carried to the
brain. Thus, even though the bones of the skull will successfully transmit the sound to CN 8,
it cannot then be carried to the brain due to the underlying nerve dysfunction.
- In the setting of conductive hearing loss, bone conduction (BC) will be better
then air conduction (AC) when assessed by the Rinne Test. If there is a blockage in the
passageway (e.g. wax) that carries sound from the outside to CN 8, then sound
will be better heard when it travels via the bones of the skull. Thus, the patient will note
BC to be better then or equal to AC in the ear with the subjective decline in hearing.
- In the setting of a sensorineural hearing loss, air
conduction will still be better then bone conduction (i.e. the normal pattern
will be retained). This is because the problem is at the level of CN 8. Thus,
regardless of the means (bone or air) by which the impulse gets to CN 8, there will still
be a marked hearing decrement in the affected ear. As AC is normally better then BC, this will
still be the case.
Identifying conductive v sensorineural
hearing deficits requires historical information as well as the results of
Webber and Rinne testing. In summary, this data is interpreted as
- First determine by history and crude acuity testing which
ear has the hearing problem.
- Perform the Webber test. If there is a conductive hearing deficit, the Webber
will lateralize to the affected ear. If there is a sensorineural deficit,
the Webber will lateralize to the normal ear.
- Perform the Rinne test. If there is a conductive hearing deficit, BC
will be greater then or equal to AC in the affected ear. If there is a sensorineural
hearing deficit, AC will be greater then BC in the affected ear.
For more information about CN 8, see the following links:
Yale University Cranial Nerve Review Site
Uniform Services School of Medicine Cranial Nerve Review Site
CN9 (Glosopharyngeal) and CN 10 (Vagus): These nerves
are responsible for raising the soft palate of the mouth and the gag reflex,
a protective mechanism which prevents food or liquid from traveling into the
lungs As both CNs contribute to these functions, they are tested together.
Testing Elevation of the soft palate:
- Ask the patient to open their mouth and say, "ahhhh," causing the soft palate
to rise upward.
- Look at the uvula, a midline structure hanging down from the palate. If
the tongue obscures your view, take a tongue depressor and gently push it
down and out of the way.
- The Uvula should rise up straight and in the midline.
If CN 9 on the right is not functioning (e.g. in the setting
of a stroke), the uvula will be pulled to the left. The opposite occurs in the setting of left CN
Left CN9 Dysfunction:
Patient status post stroke affecting left CN9. Uvula therefore pulled over towards right.
Be aware that other processes can cause deviation of the uvula.A
peritonsilar abscess, for example, will push the uvula towards the opposite (i.e. normal)
Left peritonsillar abscess:
infection within left tonsil has pushed uvula towards the right.
Testing the Gag Reflex:
- Ask the patient to widely open their mouth. If you are unable to see
the posterior pharynx (i.e. the back of their throat), gently push down with a
- In some patients, the tongue depressor alone will elicit
a gag. In most others, additional stimulation is required. Take a cotton tipped applicator
and gently brush it against the posterior pharynx or uvula. This should
generate a gag in most patients.
- A small but measurable percent of the normal population
has either a minimal or non-existent gag reflex. Presumably, they make use of other mechanisms
to prevent aspiration.
Gag testing is rather noxious. Some people are particularly sensitive to
even minimal stimulation. As such, I would suggest that you only perform this test when there is reasonable
suspicion that pathology exists. This would include two major clinical situations:
- If you suspect that the patient has suffered acute dysfunction, most commonly
in the setting of a stroke. These patients may complain of/be noted to cough
when they swallow. Or, they may suffer from recurrent pneumonia. Both of
these events are signs of aspiration of food contents into the passageways
of the lungs. These patients may also have other cranial nerve abnormalities
as lesions affecting CN 9 and 10 often affect CNs 11 and 12, which are anatomically
- Patient's suffering from sudden decreased level of consciousness. In this
setting, the absence of a gag might indicate that the patient is no longer
able to reflexively protect their airway from aspiration. Strong consideration
should be given to intubating the patient, providing them with a secure mechanical
airway until their general condition improves.
CN 9 is also responsible for taste originating on the posterior
1/3 of the tongue. As this is rarely a clinically important problem, further
discussion is not included.
CN 10 also provides parasympathetic innervation
to the heart, though this cannot be easily tested on physical examination.
For more information about CN 9 and 10, see the following links:
Yale University Cranial Nerve Review Site
Uniform Services School of Medicine Cranial Nerve Review Site
CN11 (Spinal Accessory): CN 11 innervates
the muscles which permit shrugging of the shoulders (Trapezius) and turning
the head laterally (Sternocleidomastoid).
- Place your hands on top of either shoulder and ask the patient to shrug
while you provide resistance. Dysfunction will cause weakness/absence of movement
on the affected side.
- Place your open left hand against the patient's right cheek and ask them
to turn into your hand while you provide resistance. Then repeat on the other
side. The right Sternocleidomasoid muscle (and thus right CN 11) causes the
head to turn to the left, and vice versa.
CN12 (Hypoglossal): CN 12 is responsible
for tongue movement. Each CN 12 innervates one-half of the tongue.
- Ask the patient to stick their tongue straight out of their mouth.
- If there is any suggestion of deviation to one side/weakness, direct them
to push the tip of their tongue into either cheek while you provide counter
pressure from the outside.
If the right CN 12 is dysfunctional, the tongue will deviate
to the right. This is because the normally functioning left half will dominate
as it no longer has opposition from the right. Similarly, the tongue would
have limited or absent ability to resist against pressure applied from outside
the left cheek.
Left CN 12 Dysfunction: Stroke has resulted in L CN 12 Palsy.
Tongue therefore deviates to the left.
For more information about CN12, see the following links:
Yale University Cranial Nerve
Uniform Services School
of Medicine Cranial Nerve Review Site
Sensory and Motor Examinations - A Brief Review of Anatomy
Testing of motor and sensory function requires a basic understanding
of normal anatomy and physiology. In brief:
- Voluntary movement begins with an impulse generated by cell bodies located
in the brain.
- Signals travel from these cells down their respective axons, forming the
Cortiospinal (a.k.a. Pyramidal) tract. At the level of the brain stem, this
motor pathway crosses over to the opposite side of the body and continue downward
on that side of the spinal cord. The nerves which comprise this motor pathway
are collectively referred to as Upper Motor Neurons (UMNs). It's important
to note that there are other motor pathways that carry impulses from the brain
to the periphery and help modulate movement. A discussion of these tracts
can be found in other Neurology reference texts.
For more information about motor pathways, see the following link:
University of Washington
Review of Motor Pathways
- At a specific point in the spinal cord the axon synapses with a 2nd
nerve, referred to as a Lower Motor Neuron (LMN). The precise location of
the synapse depends upon where the lower motor neuron is destined to travel.
If, for example, the LMN terminates in the hand, the synapse occurs in the
cervical spine (i.e. neck area). However, if it's headed for the foot, the
synapse occurs in the lumbar spine (i.e. lower back).
- The UMNs are part of the Central Nervous System (CNS), which is composed
of neurons whose cell bodies are located in the brain or spinal cord. The
LMNs are part of the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS), made up of motor and
sensory neurons with cell bodies located outside of the brain and spinal cord.
The axons of the PNS travel to and from the periphery, connecting the organs
of action (e.g. muscles, sensory receptors) with the CNS.
- Nerves which carry impulses away from the CNS are referred to Efferents
(i.e. motor) while those that bring signals back are called Afferents (i.e.
- Axons that exit and enter the spine at any given level generally connect
to the same distal anatomic area. These bundles of axons, referred to as spinal
nerve roots, contain both afferent and efferent nerves. The roots exit/enter
the spinal cord through neruoforamina in the spine, paired openings that allow
for their passage out of the bony protection provided by the vertebral column.
For more information about spinal cord anatomy, see the following link:
Review of Spinal Anatomy
- As the efferent neurons travels peripherally, components from different
roots commingle and branch, following a highly programmed pattern. Ultimately,
contributions from several roots may combine to form a named peripheral nerve,
which then follows a precise anatomic route on its way to innervating a specific
muscle. The Radial Nerve, for example, travels around the Humerus (bone of
the upper arm), contains contributions from Cervical Nerve Roots 6, 7 and
8 and innervates muscles that extend the wrist and supinate the forearm.
It may help to think of a nerve root as an electrical cable composed of many
different colored wires, each wire representing an axon. As the cable moves
away from the spinal cord, wires split off and head to different destinations.
Prior to reaching their targets, they combine with wires originating from other
cables. The group of wires that ultimately ends at a target muscle group may
therefore have contributions from several different roots.
For more information about radial nerve anatomy and function, see below.
- Afferents carry impulses in the opposite direction of the motor nerves.
That is, they bring information from the periphery to the spinal cord and
- Sensory nerves begin in the periphery, receiving input from specialized
receptor organs. The axons then move proximally, joining in a precise fashion
with other axons to form the afferent component of a named peripheral nerve.
The Radial Nerve, for example, not only has a motor function (described previously)
but also carries sensory information from discrete parts of the hand and forearm.
- As the sensory neurons approach the spinal cord, they join specific spinal
nerve roots. Each root carries sensory information from a discrete area of
the body. The area of skin innervated by a particular nerve root is referred
to as a dermatome. Dermatome maps describe the precise areas of the body innervated
by each nerve root. These distributions are more or less the same for all
people, which is clinically important. In the setting of nerve root dysfunction,
the specific area supplied by that root will be affected. This can be mapped
out during a careful exam (see below), identifying which root(s) is dysfunctional.
To view a dermatomal map, see the following link:
Map University of Scranton
- Sensory input travels up through the spinal cord along specific paths, with
the precise route defined by the type of sensation being transmitted. Nerves
carrying pain impulses, for example, cross to the opposite side of the spinal
cord soon after entering, and travel up to the brain on that side of the cord.
Vibratory sensations, on the other hand, enter the cord and travel up the
same side, crossing over only when they reach the brain stem (see following
sections for detailed descriptions).
For more information about sensory pathways, see the following link:
University of Washington
Review of Sensory Pathways
- Ultimately, the sensory nerves terminate in the brain, where the impulses
are integrated and perception occurs.
Understanding the above neruo-anatomic relationships and patterns
of innervation has important clinical implications when trying to determine
the precise site of neurological dysfunction. Injury at the spinal nerve root
level, for example, will produce a characteristic loss of sensory and motor
function. This will differ from that caused by a problem at the level of the
peripheral nerve. An approach to localizing lesions on the basis of motor and
sensory findings is described in the sections which follow. Realize that there
is a fair amount of inter-individual variation with regards to the specifics
of innervation. Also, recognize that often only parts of nerves may become dysfunctional,
leading to partial motor or sensory deficits. As such, the patterns of loss
are rarely as "pure" as might be suggested by the precise descriptions of nerves
and their innervations.
Sensory testing of the face is discussed in the section on Cranial Nerves.
Testing of the extremities focuses on the two main afferent pathways: Spinothalamics
and Dorsal Columns.
- Spinothalamics: These nerves detect pain, temperature and crude touch.
They travel from the periphery, enter the spinal cord and then cross to the
other side of the cord within one or two vertebral levels of their entry point
They then continue up that side to the brain, terminating in the cerebral
hemisphere on the opposite side of the body from where they began.
- Dorsal Columns: These nerves detect position (a.k.a. proprioception),
vibratory sensation and light touch. They travel from the periphery, entering
the spinal cord and then moving up to the base of the brain on the same side
of the cord as where they started. Upon reaching the brain stem they cross
to the opposite side, terminating in the cerebral hemisphere on the opposite
side of the body from where they began.
A screening evaluation of these pathways can be performed as
- The patient's ability to perceive the touch of a sharp object is used to
assess the pain pathway of the Spinothalamics. To do this, break a Q-tip or
tongue depressor in half, such that you create a sharp, pointy end. Alternatively,
you can use a disposable needle as the sharp-ended probe. I would discourage
the use of the pointy, metal spikes that accompany some reflex hammers. If,
for example, you used this and caused bleeding, it's possible (if the tip
were not well cleaned) to transmit blood borne infections from one patient
to another. Better to use a disposable implement.
- Ask the patient to close their eyes so that they are not able to get visual
- Start at the top of the foot. Orient the patient by informing them that
you are going to first touch them with the sharp implement. Then do the same
with a non-sharp object (e.g. the soft end of a q-tip). This clarifies for
the patient what you are defining as sharp and dull.
- Now, touch the lateral aspect of the foot with either the sharp or dull
tool, asking them to report their response. Move medially across the top of
the foot, noting their response to each touch.
- If they give accurate responses, do the same on the other foot. The same
test can be repeated for the upper extremities (i.e. on the hand), though
this would only be of utility if the patient complained of numbness/impaired
sensation in that area.
Proprioception: This refers to the
body's ability to know where it is in space.
As such, it contributes to balance. Similar
to the Spinothalamic tracts, disorders which affect
this system tend to first occur at the most distal
aspects of the body. Thus, proprioception is checked first in the feet and then, if abnormal,
more proximally (e.g. the hands).
- Ask the patient to close their eyes so that they do not receive any visual
- Grasp either side of the great toe. Orient the patient as to up and down.
Flex the toe (pull it upwards) while telling the patient what you are doing.
Then extend the toe (pull it downwards) while again informing them of which
direction you are moving it.
- Alternately deflect the toe up or down without telling the patient in which
direction you are moving it. They should be able to correctly identify the
movement and direction.
- Both great toes should be checked in the same fashion. If normal, no further
testing need be done in the screening exam.
- If the patient is unable to correctly identify the movement/direction, move
more proximally (e.g. to the ankle joint) and repeat (e.g. test whether they
can determine whether the foot is moved up or down at the ankle).
Similar testing can be done on the fingers. This is usually reserved for those settings
when patients have distal findings and/or symptoms in the upper extremities.
Vibratory Sensation: Vibratory sensation travels to the brain
via the dorsal columns. Thus, the findings generated from testing this system
should corroborate those of proprioception (see above).
- Start at the toes with the patient seated. You will need a 128 hz tuning
128 Hz tuning fork
- Ask the patient to close their eyes so that they do not receive any visual
- Grasp the tuning fork by the stem and strike the forked ends against the
heel of your hand, causing it to vibrate.
- Place the stem on top of the interphalangeal joint of the great toe. Put
a few fingers of your other hand on the bottom-side of this joint.
Testing vibratory sensation
- Ask the patient if they can feel the vibration. You should be able to feel
the same sensation with your fingers on the bottom side of the joint.
- The patient should be able to determine when the vibration stops, which
will correlate with when you are no longer able to feel it transmitted through
the joint. It sometimes takes a while before the fork stops vibrating. If
you want to move things along, rub the index finger of the hand holding the
fork along the tines, rapidly dampening the vibration.
Repeat testing on the other foot.
Additional/Special Testing for Dorsal Column Dysfunction
Testing Two Point Discrimination: Patients should normally
be able to distinguish simultaneous touch with 2 objects which are separated
by at least 5mm. These stimuli are carried via the Dorsal Columns. While not
checked routinely, it is useful test if a discrete peripheral neruropathy is
suspected (e.g. injury to the radial nerve).
- Testing can be done with a paperclip, opened such that the ends are 5mm
- The patient should be able to correctly identify whether you are touching
them with one or both ends simultaneously, along the entire distribution of
the specific nerve which is being assessed.
Special Testing for Early Diabetic Neuropathy: A careful
foot examination should be performed on all patients with symptoms suggestive
of sensory neuropathy or at particular risk for this disorder (e.g. anyone with
Diabetes). Loss of sensation in this area can be particularly problematic as
the feet are a difficult area for the patient to evaluate on their own. Small
wounds can become large and infected, unbeknownst to the insensate patient.
Sensory testing as described above can detect this type of problem. Disposable
monofilaments (known as the Semmes-Weinstein Aethesiometer) are specially designed
for a screening evaluation. These small nylon fibers are designed such that
the normal patient should be able to feel the ends when they are gently pressed
against the soles of their feet.
- Have the patient close their eyes so that they do not receive any visual
- Touch the monofilament to 5-7 areas on the bottom of the patient's foot.
Pick locations so that all of the major areas of the sole are assessed. Avoid
calluses, which are relatively insensate.
- The patient should be able to detect the filament when the tip is lightly
applied to the skin.
Monofiliment testing: Patients with normal sensation should be
able to detect the monofiliment when it is lightly applied (picture on left).
If the force required to provoke a sensory response is strong enough to
bend the monofiliment
(picture on right), then sensation is impaired.
Interpretation: If the examiner has to supply enough pressure
such that the filament bends prior to the patient being able to detect it, they
likely suffer from sensory neuropathy. Testing should be done in multiple spots
to verify the results. Patient's with distal sensory neuropathy should carefully
examine their feet and wear good fitting shoes to assure that skin breakdown
and infections don't develop. Efforts should also be made to closely control
their diabetes so that the neuropathy does not progress.
Neuropathic Ulcer: Large ulcer has developed in this patient with severe diabetic neuropathy.
Interpreting Results of Sensory Testing
Patterns of Impairment for the Spinothalamic Tracts:
- Patients should be able to correctly distinguish sharp sensation, indicating
normal function of the spinothalamic pathway.
- Mapping out regions of impaired sensation: The examination described above
is a screening evaluation for evidence of sensory loss. This is perfectly
adequate in most clinical settings. Occasionally, the history or screening
examination will suggest a discrete anatomic region that has sensory impairment.
When this occurs, it is important to try and map out the territory involved,
using careful pin testing to define the medial/lateral and proximal/distal
boundaries of the affected region. You may even make pen marks on the skin
to clearly identify where the changes occur. As most clinicians have not memorized
the distributions of all peripheral nerves or spinal nerve roots, you can
simultaneously consult a reference book to see if the mapped territory matches
a specific nerve distribution. This type of mapping is somewhat tedious and
should only be done in appropriate situations.
- Diffuse Distal Sensory Loss: A number of chronic systemic diseases affect
nerve function. The most commonly occurring of these, at least in Western
countries, is Diabetes. When control has been poor over many years, the sensory
nerves become dysfunctional. This first affects the most distal aspects of
the nerves and then moves proximally. Thus, the feet are the first area to
be affected. As it is a systemic disease, it occurs simultaneously in both
limbs. Exam reveals loss of ability to detect the sharp stimulus across the
entire foot. Thus, the sensory loss does not follow a dermatomal (i.e. spinal
nerve root) or peripheral nerve distribution. As the examiner tests more proximally,
he/she will ultimately reach a point where sensation is again normal. The
more advanced the disease, the higher up the leg this will occur. Hands can
be affected, though much less commonly then feet as the nerves traveling to
the legs are longer and thus at much greater risk. This pattern of loss is
referred to as a Stocking or Glove distribution impairment, as the area involved
covers an entire distal region, much as a sock or glove would cover a foot
or hand. Such deficits may be associated with neuropathic pain, a continuous
burning sensation affecting the distal extremity.
- Peripheral Nerve Distribution: A specific peripheral nerve can become dysfunctional.
This might, for example, occur as the result of trauma or infarction (another
complication of diabetes). In this setting, there will be a pattern of sensory
impairment that follows the distribution of the nerve. Radial nerve palsy,
for example, can occur if an intoxicated person falls asleep in a position
that puts pressure on the nerve as it travels around the Humerus (bone of
the upper arm). Intoxication induced loss of consciousness then prevents the
patient from reflexively changing position, the normal means by which we prevent
nerves from being exposed to constant direct pressure. The resultant sensory
loss would involve the back of the hand and forearm. Motor function would
also be affected (see under motor exam). Pinning down the culprit nerve requires
knowledge of nerve anatomy and innervation. On a practical level, most clinicians
don't commit this to memory. Rather, they gather a history suggestive of a
discrete nerve deficit, verify the territory of loss on exam, and then look
it up in a reference book.
For more information about peripheral nerve injuries, see the following link:
Peripheral nerves and
their territories of innervation
- Nerve Root Impairment: A nerve root (or roots) can be damaged as it leaves
the cord. This will result in a sensory deficit along its specific distribution,
which can in turn be identified on examination. The S1 nerve root, for example,
can be compressed by herniated disc material in the lumbar spine. This would
cause sensory loss along the lateral aspect of the lower leg and the bottom
of the foot. Only the leg on the affected side would have this deficit. As
mentioned under peripheral nerve dysfunction, most clinicians do not memorize
the dermatomes related to each nerve root. Rather, they gather a history suggestive
of a discrete nerve deficit, verify a dermatomal distribution of loss on exam,
and then look it up in a reference book.
For more information about nerve root compression, see the following links:
of Wisconsin, Anatomy and pathophysiology of nerve root compression
Image of Herniated
- The Spinothalamics are also responsible for temperature discrimination.
For practical reasons (i.e. it's often hard to find test tubes, fill them
with the requisite temperature water, etc) this is omitted in the screening
exam. The information from sharp stimulus testing as described above should
suffice. Temperature discrimination could be assessed as a means of verifying
any abnormality detected on sharp/dull testing.
- Testing of the sacral nerve roots, serving the anus and rectum, is important
if patients complain of incontinence, inability to defecate/urinate, or there
is otherwise reason to suspect that these roots may be compromised. In the
setting of Cauda Equina syndrome, for example, multiple sacral and lumbar
roots become compressed bilaterally (e.g. by posteriorly herniated disc material
or a tumor). When this occurs, the patient is unable to urinate, as the lower
motor neurons carried in these sacral nerve roots no longer function. Thus
there is no way to send an impulse to the bladder instructing it to contract.
Nor will they be aware that there bladders are full. There will also be loss
of anal spincter tone, which can be appreciated on rectal exam. Ability to
detect pin pricks in the perineal area (a.k.a. saddle distribution) is also
For more information about peripheral nerves and their territories of innervation, see the following link:
Peripheral nerves and their territories of innervation
Patterns of Impairment for Dorsal Column Dysfunction:
Patients should be able to correctly identify the motion and
direction of the toe. In the setting of Dorsal Column dysfunction (a common
complication of diabetes, for example), distal testing will be abnormal. This
is similar to the pattern of injury which affects the Spinothalamic tracts described
- Patients should be able to detect the initial vibration and accurately determine
when it has stopped.
- As described under testing of proprioception, dorsal column dysfunction
tends to first affect the most distal aspects of the system. When this occurs,
the patient is either unable to detect the vibration or they perceive that
the sensation extinguishes too early (i.e. they stop feeling it even though
you can still appreciate the sensation with your fingers on the underside
of the joint).
- The findings on vibratory testing should parallel those obtained when assessing
proprioception, as both sensations travel via the same pathway.
The muscle is the unit of action that causes movement. Normal
motor function depends on intact upper and lower motor neurons, sensory pathways
and input from a number of other neurological systems. Disorders of movement
can be caused by problems at any point within this interconnected system.
Muscle Bulk and Appearance:
This assessment is somewhat subjective and quite dependent
on the age, sex and the activity/fitness level of the individual. A frail elderly
person, for example, will have less muscle bulk then a 25 year old body builder.
With experience, you will get a sense of the normal range for given age groups,
factoring in their particular activity levels and overall states of health.
Things to look for:
- Using your eyes and hands, carefully examine the major muscle groups of
the upper and lower extremities. Palpation of the muscles will give you a
sense of underlying mass. The largest and most powerful groups are those of
the quadriceps and hamstrings of the upper leg (i.e. front and back of the
thighs). The patient should be in a gown so that the areas of interest are
- Muscle groups should appear symmetrically developed when compared with
their counterparts on the other side of the body. They should also be appropriately
developed, after making allowances for the patient's age, sex, and activity
While both legs have well developed musculature, the left has greater bulk.
There should be no muscle movement when the limb is at rest. Rare disorders (e.g.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) result in death of the lower motor neuron and subsequent
denervation of the muscle. This causes twitching of the fibers known as fasciculations,which
can be seen on gross inspection of affected muscles.
For more information about ALS, see the following link:
NIH Sponsored Site About ALS
- Tremors are a specific type of continuous, involuntary
muscle activity that results in limb movement. Parkinson's Disease (PD), for
example, can cause a very characteristic resting tremor of the hand (the head
and other body parts can also be affected) that diminishes when the patient
voluntarily moves the affected limb. Benign Essential Tremor, on the other
hand, persists throughout movement and is not associated with any other neurological
findings, easily distinguishing it from PD.
||To see a video demonstrating features of benign essential
tremor, click on the movie icon.
||To see a video demonstrating features of Parkinson's Disease,
click on the movie icon.
For more information about Parkinson's Disease, see the following link:
NIH Sponsored Site About Parkinson's Disease
- The major muscle groups to be palpated include: biceps, triceps, deltoids,
quadriceps and hamstrings. Palpation should not elicit pain. Interestingly,
myositis (a rare condition characterized by idiopathic muscle inflammation)
causes the patient to experience weakness but not pain.
- If there is asymmetry, note if it follows a particular pattern. Remember
that some allowance must be made for handedness (i.e. right v left hand dominance).
Does the asymmetry follow a particular nerve distribution, suggesting a peripheral
motor neuron injury? For example, muscles which lose their LMN inervation
become very atrophic. Is the bulk in the upper and lower extremities similar?
Spinal cord transection at the Thoracic level will cause upper extremity muscle
bulk to be normal or even increased due to increased dependence on arms for
activity, mobility, etc. However, the muscles of the lower extremity will
atrophy due to loss of innervation and subsequent disuse. Is there another
process (suggested by history or other aspects of the exam) that has resulted
in limited movement of a particular limb? For example, a broken leg that
has recently been liberated from a cast will appear markedly atrophic.
Diffuse Muscle Wasting: Note loss muscle bulk in left hand due to
In particular, compare left and right thenar eminences.
Tone: When a muscle group is relaxed, the examiner should
be able to easily manipulate the joint through its normal range of motion. This
movement should feel fluid. A number
of disease states may alter this sensation. For the screening examination, it
is reasonable to limit this assessment to only the major joints, including:
wrist, elbow, shoulder, hips and knees.
- Ask the patient to relax the joint that is to be tested.
- Carefully move the limb through its normal range of motion, being careful
not to maneuver it in any way that is uncomfortable or generates pain.
- Be aware that many patients, particularly the elderly, often have other
medical conditions that limit joint movement. Degenerative joint disease of
the knee, for example, might cause limited range of motion, though tone should
still be normal. If the patient has recently injured the area or are in pain,
do not perform this aspect of the exam.
Things to look for:
- Normal muscle generates some resistance to movement when a limb is moved
passively by an examiner. After performing this exam on a number of patients,you'll
develop an appreciation for the range of normal tone.
- Increased tone (hypertonicity) results from muscle contraction. At the extreme
end is spasticity, which occurs when the upper motor neuron no longer functions.
In this setting, the affected limb is held in a flexed position and the examiner
may be unable to move the joint. This is seen most commonly following a stroke,
which results in the death of the upper motor neuron cell body in the brain.
- Flaccidness is the complete absence of tone. This occurs when the lower
motor neuron is cut off from the muscles that it normally innervates.
- Disorders that do not directly affect the muscles, upper or lower motor
neurons can still alter tone. Perhaps the most common of these is Parkinson's Disease (PD). This is a disorder of the Extra Pyramidal
System (EPS). The EPS normally contributes to initiation and
smoothness of movement. PD causes increased tone, generating a ratchet-like
sensation (known as cog wheeling) when the affected limbs are passively moved
by the examiner.
with muscle bulk (described above), strength testing must take into account
the age, sex and fitness level of the patient. For example, a frail, elderly,
bed bound patient may have muscle weakness due to severe deconditioning and
not to intrinsic neurological disease. Interpretation must also consider the
expected strength of the muscle group being tested. The quadriceps group, for
example, should be much more powerful then the Biceps.
There is a 0 to 5 rating scale for muscle strength:
| Barest flicker of movement of the muscle, though not enough
to move the structure to which it's attached.
| Voluntary movement which is not sufficient to overcome the
force of gravity. For example, the
patient would be able to slide their hand across a table but not lift it
from the surface.
|Voluntary movement capable of overcoming gravity, but not
any applied resistance. For example,
the patient could raise their hand off a table, but not if any additional
resistance were applied.
|Voluntary movement capable of overcoming "some" resistance
'+' and '-' can be added to these values, providing further gradations of
strength. Thus, a patient who can overcome "moderate but not full resistance"
might be graded 4+ or 5- . This is quite subjective, with a fair amount of variability
amongst clinicians. Ultimately, it's most important that you develop your own
sense of what these gradations mean, allowing for internal consistency and interpretability
of serial measurements.
Specifics of Strength Testing - Major Muscle Groups: In the screening examination, it is reasonable
to check only the major muscles/muscle groups. More detailed testing can be performed in the
setting of discrete/unexplained weakness. The
names of the major muscles/muscle groups along with the spinal roots and peripheral
nerves that provide their innervation are provided
below. Nerve roots providing the greatest
contribution are printed in bold. More
extensive descriptions of individual muscles and their functions, along with
their precise innervations can be found in a Neurology reference text.
- Intrinsic muscles of the hand (C 8, T 1): Ask the patient to spread their
fingers apart against resistance (abduction). Then squeeze them together,
with your fingers placed in between each of their digits (adduction). Test
each hand separately. The muscles which control adduction and abduction of
the fingers are called the Interossei, innervated by the Ulnar Nerve.
For more information about finger abductors and adductors, see the following
University of Washington, Anatomy of finger abductors and adductors
- Flexors of the fingers (C 7, 8, T1): Ask the patient to make a fist,
squeezing their hand around two of your fingers. If the grip is normal, you
will not be able to pull your fingers out. Test each hand separately. The
Flexor Digitorum Profundus controls finger flexion and is innervated by the
Median (radial ½) and Ulnar (medial ½) Nerves.
For more information about finger flexors, see the following links:
of Washington, Anatomy of finger flexors 1
of Washington, Anatomy of finger flexors 2
- Wrist flexion (C 7, 8, T 1): Have the patient try to flex their wrist as
you provide resistance. Test each hand separately. The muscle groups which
control flexion are innervated by the Median and Ulnar Nerves.
For more information about wrist flexors, see the following links:
of Washington, Anatomy of wrist flexors 1
University of Washington, Anatomy of wrist flexors 2
- Wrist extension (C 6, 7, 8):
Have the patient try to extend their wrist as you provide resistance. Test
each hand separately. The Extensor Radialis muscles control extension and
are innervated by the Radial Nerve. Clinical Correlate: Damage to the radial
nerve results in wrist drop (loss of ability to extend the hand at the wrist).
This can occur via any one of a number of mechanisms. For example, the nerve
can be compressed against the humerus for a prolonged period of time when
an intoxicated person loses consciousness with the inside aspect of the upper
arm resting against a solid object (known as a "Saturday Night Palsy").
For more information about wrist extensors, see the following links:
of Washington, Anatomy of wrist extensors 1
of Washington, Anatomy of wrist extensors 2
- Elbow Flexion (C 5, 6): The main
flexor (and supinator) of the forearm is the Brachialis Muscle (along with
the Biceps Muscle). Have the patient bend their elbow to ninety degrees while
keeping their palm directed upwards. Then direct them to flex their forearm
while you provide resistance. Test each arm separately. These muscles are
innervated by the Musculocutaneous Nerve.
For more information about elbow flexors, see the following links:
of Washington, Anatomy of elbow flexors 1
of Washington, Anatomy of elbow flexors 2
- Elbow Extension (C 7, 8): The
main extensor of the forearm is the triceps muscle. Have the patient extend
their elbow against resistance while the arm is held out (abducted at the
shoulder) from the body at ninety degrees. Test each arm separately. The Triceps
is innervated by the Radial Nerve.
For more information about elbow extensors, see the following link:
of Washington, Anatomy of elbow extensors
- Shoulder Adduction (C 5 thru T1): The main muscle of adduction is the Pectoralis
Major, though the Latissiumus and others contribute as well. Have the patient
flex at the elbow while the arm is held out from the body at forty-five degrees.
Then provide resistance as they try to further adduct at the shoulder. Test
each shoulder separately.
For more information about shoulder adductors, see the following links:
of Washington, Anatomy of shoulder adductors 1
of Washington, Anatomy of shoulder adductors 2
- Shoulder Abduction (C 5, 6):
The deltoid muscle, innervated by the axillary nerve, is the main muscle of
abduction. Have the patient flex at the elbow while the arms is held out from
the body at forty-five degress. Then provide resistance as they try to further
abduct at the shoulder. Test each shoulder separately.
For more information about shoulder abductors, see the following link:
of Washington, Anatomy of shoulder abductors
- Hip Flexion (L 2, 3, 4): With the patient seated, place your
hand on top of one thigh and instruct the patient to lift the leg up from
the table. The main hip flexor is the Iliopsoas muscle, innervated by the
For more information about hip flexors, see the following links:
of Washington, Anatomy of hip flexors 1
of Washington, Anatomy of hip flexors 2
- Hip Extension (L5, S1): With the patient lying prone, direct the patient
to lift their leg off the table against resistance. Test each leg separately.
The main hip extensor is the gluteus maximus, innervated by inferior gluteal
For more information about hip extensors, see the following link:
of Washington, Anatomy of hip extensors
- Hip Abduction (L 4, 5, S1): Place your hands on the outside of either thigh
and direct the patient to separate their legs against resistance. This movement
is mediated by a number of muscles.
For more information about hip abductors, see the following links:
of Washington, Anatomy of hip abductors 1
of Washington, Anatomy of hip abductors 2
of Washington, Anatomy of hip abductors 3
- Hip Adduction (L 2, 3, 4): Place your hands on the inner aspects of the
thighs and repeat the maneuver. A number of muscles are responsible for adduction.
They are innervated by the obturator nerve.
For more information about hip adductors, see the following links:
of Washington, Anatomy of hip adductors 1
of Washington, Anatomy of hip adductors 2
of Washington, Anatomy of hip adductors 3
of Washington, Anatomy of hip adductors 4
Extension (L 2, 3, 4): Have the seated patient steadily
press their lower extremity into your hand against resistance. Test each
leg separately. Extension is mediated by the quadriceps muscle group, which
is innervated by the femoral nerve.
For more information about knee extensors, see the following links:
of Washington, Anatomy of knee extensors 1
of Washington, Anatomy of knee extensors 2
of Washington, Anatomy of knee extensors 3
of Washington, Anatomy of knee extensors 4
flexion (L 5; S 1, 2): Have the patient rest prone. Then have them pull their
heel up and off the table against resistance. Each leg is tested separately.
Flexion is mediated by the hamstring muscle group, via branches of the sciatic
For more information about knee flexors, see the following links:
of Washington, Anatomy of knee flexors 1
of Washington, Anatomy of knee flexors 2
of Washington, Anatomy of knee flexors 3
of Washington, Anatomy of knee flexors 4
of Washington, Anatomy of knee flexors 5
Dorsiflexion (L 4, 5): Direct the patient to pull their toes upwards while you
provide resistance with your hand. Each foot is tested separately. The muscles
which mediate dorsiflexion are innervated by the deep peroneal nerve. Clinical
Correlate: The peroneal nerve is susceptible to injury at the point where
it crosses the head of the fibula (laterally, below the knee). If injured,
the patient develops "Foot Drop," an inability to dorsiflex the foot.
For more information about ankle dorsiflexors, see the following link:
of Washington, Anatomy of ankle dorsiflexors
Plantar Flexion (S 1, S 2). Have
the patient "step on the gas" while providing resistance with your hand.
Test each foot separately. The gastrocnemius and soleus, the muscles which
mediate this movement, are innervated by a branch of the sciatic nerve. Plantar
flexion and dorsiflexion can also be assessed by asking the patient to walk
on their toes (plantar flexion) and heels (dorsiflexion).
For more information about ankle plantar flexors, see the following links:
of Washington, Anatomy of ankle plantar flexors 1
Washington, Anatomy of ankle plantar flexors 2
Washington, Anatomy of ankle plantar flexors 3
It is generally quite helpful to directly compare right v left sided strength,
as they should more or less be equivalent (taking into account the handedness
of the patient). If there is weakness, try to identify a pattern, which might
provide a clue as to the etiology of the observed decrease in strength. In particular,
make note of differences between:
- Right v Left
- Proximal muscles v distal
- Upper extremities v lower
- Or is the weakness generalized, suggestive of a systemic neurological disorder
or global deconditioning
Special Testing for subtle weakness: Subtle weakness can be
hard to detect. Pay attention to how the patient walks, uses and holds their
arms and hands as they enter the room, get up and down from a seated position,
move onto the examination table, etc. Pronator drift is a test for slight weakness
of the upper extremities. The patient should sit with both arms extended, palms
directed upward. Subtle weakness in either arm will cause slight downward drift
and pronation of that limb (i.e. the arm will rotate slightly inward and down).
Common peripheral nerves, territories of innervation, and clinical
Common Peripheral Nerves and Their Anatomy
||Contributing Spinal Nerve Roots
||Back of thumb, index, middle, and 1/2 ring finger; back of forearm
||Wrist extension and abduction of thumb in palmer plane
||C6, 7, 8
||At risk for compression at humerus, known as "Saturday Night Palsy"
Radial Nerve Palsy Image
Radial Nerve Palsy Video
||Palmar and dorsal aspects of pinky and 1/2 of ring finger
||Abduction of fingers (intrinsic muscles of hand)
||C7, 8 and T1
||At risk for injury with elbow fracture. Can get transient symptoms when
inside of elbow is struck ("funny bone" distribution)
||Palmar aspect of the thumb, index, middle and 1/2 ring finger; palm below these fingers.
||Abduction of thumb perpendicular to palm (thenar muscles).
||Compression at carpal tunnel causes carpal tunnel syndrome
Nerve of Thigh
|Lateral aspect thigh
||Can become compressed in obese patients, causing numbness over its distribution
||Lateral leg, top of foot
||Dorsiflexion of foot (tibialis anterior muscle)
||L4, 5; S1
Can be injured with proximal fibula fracture, leading to foot drop (inability
to dorsiflex foot)
Foot Drop video
This table provides information about usual patterns of innervations. There
is occasionally interindividual variation. In the setting of peripheral nerve
dysfunction, the level of the lesion will determine the extent of the deficit.
That is, proximal insults will cause the entire nerve distribution to be affected
while more distal lesions will only impact function beyond the site of the injury.
More on carpal tunnel syndrome...
||Video of findings in advanced carpal tunnel syndrome.
Carpal Tunnel Induced Atrophy: Chronic, severe compression of
the median nerve within the carpal tunnel has led to atrophy of the Thenar
muscles (hand on right). A normal appearing Thenar Eminence is demonstrated
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All rights reserved. Last updated 8/16/2008.